Microsoft Israel R&D Center held their first Recommendations Technology conference today, ReCon. With an interesting agenda and a location that’s just across the street from my office, I could not skip this one… here are some impressions from talks I found worth mentioning.
The first keynote speaker was Joseph Sirosh, who leads the Cloud Machine Learning team at Microsoft, recently joining from Amazon. Sirosh may have aimed low, not knowing what his audience will be like, but as a keynote this was quite a disappointing talk, full of simplistic statements and buzzwords. I guess he lost me when he stated quite decisively that the big difference about putting your service on the cloud is that it means it will get better the more people use it. Yeah.
Still, there were also some interesting observations he pointed out, worth mentioning:
- If you’re running a personalization service, benchmarking against most popular items (i.e. Top sellers for commerce) is the best non-personalized option. Might sound trivial, but when coming from an 8-year Amazon VP, that’s a good validation
- “You get what you measure”: what you choose to measure is what you’re optimizing, make sure it’s indeed your weakest links and the parts you want to improve
- Improvement depends on being able to run a large number of experiments, especially when you’re in a good position already (the higher you are, the lower your gains, and the more experiments you’ll need to run to keep gaining)
- When running these large numbers of experiments, good collaboration and knowledge sharing becomes critical, so different people don’t end up running the same experiments without knowing of each other’s past results
Elad Yom-Tov from Microsoft Research described work his team did on enhancing Collaborative Filtering using browse logs. They experimented with adding user browser logs (visited urls) and search queries to the CF matrix in various ways to help bootstrapping users with little data and to better identify short-term (recent) intent for these users.
An interesting observation they reached was that using the raw search queries as matrix columns worked better than trying to generalize or categorize them, although intuitively one would expect this would reduce the sparsity of such otherwise very long-tail attributes. It seems that the potential gain in reducing sparsity is offset by the loss of specificity and granularity of the original queries.
Another related talk which outlined an interesting way to augment CF was by Haggai Roitman of IBM Research. Haggai suggested the feature of “user uniqueness” – to what extent the user follows the crowd or deliberately looks for the esoteric choices, as a valuable signal in recommendations. This uniqueness would then determine whether to serve the user with results that are primarily popularity-based (e.g. CF) or personalized (e.g. content-based), or a mix of the two.
The second keynote was by Ronny Lempel of Yahoo! Labs in Haifa. Ronny talked about multi-user devices, in particular smart TVs, and how recommendations should take into account the user that is currently in front of the device (although this information is not readily available). The heuristic his team used was that the audience usually doesn’t change in consecutive programs watched, and so using the last program as context to recommending the next program will help model that unknown audience.
Their results indeed showed a significant improvement in recommendations effectiveness when using this context. Another interesting observation was that using a random item from the history, rather than the last one, actually made the recommendations perform worse than no context at all. That’s an interesting result, as it validates the assumption that approximating the right audience is valuable, and if you make recommendations to the parent watching in the evening based on the children’s watched programs in the afternoon, you are likely to make it worse than no such context at all.
The final presentation was by Microsoft’s Hadas Bitran, who presented and demonstrated Windows Phone’s Cortana. Microsoft go out of their way to describe Cortana as friendly and non-creepy, and yet the introductory video from Microsoft Hadas presented somehow managed to include a scary robot (from Halo, I presume), dramatic music, and Cortana saying “Now learning about you”. Yep, not creepy at all.
Hadas did present Cortana’s context-keeping session, which looks pretty cool as questions she asked related to previous questions and answers, were followed through nicely by Cortana (all in a controlled demo, of course). Interestingly, this even seemed to work too well, as after getting Cortana’s list of suggested restaurants Hadas asked Cortana to schedule a spec review, and Cortana insisted again and again to book a table at the restaurant instead… nevertheless, I can say the demo actually made the option of buying a Windows Phone pass through my mind, so it does do the job.
All in all, it was an interesting and well-organized conference, with a good mix of academia and industry, a good match to IBM’s workshops. Let’s have many more of these!